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頁面建立日期
2018.11.07

頁面更新日期
2019.10.21

無家者 Homelessness


簡介 Introduction

無家者,過去多指無業無家的露宿者,但近年多了不少在職貧窮的「麥難民」,即泛指每天就不同的工作地點,以鄰近24小時開放的麥當勞當作流動居所,以省卻交通及住屋的費用 (林嘉瑜, 2016)。社署統計顯示香港露宿者過千名,女性露宿者的升幅更接近兩倍。露宿者較四年前增加50%,主要原因是在職貧窮嚴重,連劏房租金都付不起 (評論編輯室, 2018)。政府被批評只會以清洗街道趕走無家者,但未能提供相應及綜援政策,包括提供更多友善的避寒中心 (周滿鏗, 2018)、增添外展社工數目、臨時宿位、公屋安排 (鄒頌華, 2016; 評論編輯室, 2018)。

Homelessness was used to be related to jobless people in poverty, but nowadays, McRefugees population are raising, referring to people who stay overnight in a 24-hour service McDonald nearby their work location as they are ill-afford of transportation and rents (林嘉瑜, 2016). According to statistics from the Social Welfare Department, the number of street sleepers reached more than 1,000 and approximately raised 50% comparing to four years ago. The number of female street sleepers nearly doubled (評論編輯室, 2018). The main reason is related to working poverty as they cannot even afford the raising rent of sub-divided flats. The government has been criticized for clearing homeless people from the street, but failed to provide adequate and comprehensive social policy on social security and labour market such as providing more friendly shelters, increase the number of outreach social worker, provide more temporary homes and providing public housing (鄒頌華, 2016; 評論編輯室, 2018)。

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

評論編輯室. (2018, 2018-05-04, January 01). 露宿者升五成 揭另類在職貧窮 無家者政策須因時制宜. 香港01. 香港.
文中指出社署統計顯示香港露宿者過千名,女性露宿者的升幅更接近兩倍。露宿者較四年前增加50%,主要原因是「在職貧窮」的問題嚴重,就連劏房租金也無法負擔。文中促政府修訂綜援政策外,更需提供更多收容中心,尤其是正視女性露宿者的需要。
引文
周滿鏗. (2018, 2018-07-02, December 23). 露宿者冷風下 不入住避寒中心三個理由. 眾新聞. 香港.
本文探討無者家即使天氣寒冷,也不願入偏遠的住避寒中心 ,寧願留守在街頭的「家」。原因包括避寒中心的職員大多不體諒他們,一旦回暖就一早清場。此外,他們又不能帶自己的家當入住中心,離開後天橋下的「家」就會被破壞。
引文
鄒頌華. (2016, 2018-02-02, December 23). 香港觀察:露宿者面臨的生存困境. BBC.
筆者認為露宿者被政府視為有礙觀瞻,各政府部門用各種手法趕逐他們。面對露宿者和貧窮人口倍增的問題,政府未有增加資源,包括外展社工數目、臨時宿位以致公屋安排。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

關鳴川. (2012). 何處是吾家. 鏗鏘集. 香港.
本集探討政府跨部門合作清理通州街橋底一帶的露宿者,將三十多名露宿者的家當清理。前線社工認為政府手法不合理,而且執意趕盡殺絕。受訪的露宿者只求繼續以街角為家,希望政府不要以突擊方式清場。
引文
林嘉瑜. (2016). 麥難民:香港繁榮背後的哀歌. 香港: 香港電台.
事緣2015年發生一單年約五十歲既女子麥當勞伏屍餐桌,從此香港便有「麥難民」的一詞,泛指有工作的無家者每天就不同的工作地點,以鄰近24小時開放的麥當勞當作流動居所,以省卻交通及住屋的費用。
引文
香港電台. (2016). 山上看霜 橋下凍僵 (無家者的苦). 視點31. 香港: 香港電台.
本文借前特首梁振英在鏡頭前對無家者噓寒問暖,但政府跨部門不斷打擊及趕逐露宿者,探討政策未能解決問題,呼籲大眾包容這群弱勢社群。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Edidin, J. P. et al. (2012). The Mental and Physical Health of Homeless Youth: A Literature Review. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43(3), 354–375.
This paper study the characteristics of homeless youth such as their single-family background and abusive relatioinships with family members. Homelessness also have close connection to their physical and mental well-being and impulsive behaviors. Since they faced difficulties in seeking adequate health service, they have high risk of health issues, development and functioning problems.
引文
Kennett, P. & Mizuuchi, T. (2010). Homelessness, housing insecurity and social exclusion in China, Hong Kong, and Japan. City, Culture and Society, 1(3), 111–118.
This paper explore the relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity and sense of social exclusion in China, Hong Kong and Japan societies.
引文
Kornatowski, G. (2010). Partnerships and governance: Struggle, cooperation, and the role of NGOs in welfare delivery for the homeless in Hong Kong. City, Culture and Society, 1(3), 155–164.
This paper oveview Hong Kong's support for the homeless. It suggested reforms of social welfare and different nature of collaborations among service providers.
引文
Nyamathi, A. M. et al. (2005). Hepatitis C virus infection, substance use and mental illness among homeless youth: a review. AIDS, 19, S34–S40.
This paper examined the risk of substance abuse, mental illness and infections among homeless youth as well as their challenges to seek help. It recommendded an model of outreach case management for youth to provide adequate healthcare for them.
引文
Spence, S. et al. (2004). Cognitive dysfunction in homeless adults: a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97(8), 375–379.
This paper conducted a literature review to study how homeless individuals faced adversities and how it led to cognitive dysfunctioning. These cognitive dysfunctioning became challenges for them to integrate into the society.
引文

書籍 Books

李玟萱. (2016). 無家者-從未想過我有這麼一天. 台灣: 游擊文化.
本書記錄了十位無家者從「有家」到「無家」的掙扎,後來他們相互扶持的故事;以及五位資深社工的故事,因不同際遇而投身服務。
引文
吳衛東等人. (2018). 香港廿四小時快餐店無家者研究報告. 香港社區組織協會.
本研究報告計對廿四小時快餐店的露宿者,進行人口點算、問卷調查和聚焦小組以了解他們的狀況和需要,提出政策倡議和適切服務的建議。
引文
香港無家者精神健康研究小組. (2018). 香港無家者精神健康服務研究報告. 香港: 香港中文大學博群社區研究計劃.
本研究用半結構方式訪問了一般無家者、患有精神病的無家者及不同的持份者,以多角度了解香港無家者對醫療制度及社會支援的需要,探討如何推動跨專業的的醫療服務予無家者。
引文
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