大腦麻痺是一群神經發育疾病，每1000人中便影響著大約2.11人(Oskoui, Coutinho, Dykeman, Jetté, & Pringsheim, 2013)。這是其中一個最常見的兒童殘疾。大腦麻痺的臨床表現因人而異，當中包括運動協調能力不佳、震顫、肌肉僵硬和認知問題 (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, 2013)。大腦麻痺通常由大腦發育異常或發育中大腦受損所導致 (e.g., 腦損傷、中風、腦部缺氧和童年時腦膜炎)。患有大腦麻痺的兒童通常需要介入治療，譬如物理治療、職業治療、言語治療和外科手術。介入的重點是盡可能增加患者的功能、獨立性、活動能力和自理能力。這需要跨領域、多方面之照護。此外，心理健康問題在腦癱患者中也很常見 (Foster, Rai, Weller, Dixon, ＆Weller, 2010)。
Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disease which affects about 2.11 out of 1000 people (Oskoui, Coutinho, Dykeman, Jetté, & Pringsheim, 2013). This is one of the most common childhood disabilities. The clinical presentations vary among patients, such as poor motor coordination, tremors, stiff muscles and cognitive impairments (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, 2013). Cerebral palsy is often the result of abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain (e.g., brain injury, stroke, hypoxia to the brain and meningitis during childhood). Children with cerebral palsy generally require interventions such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy and orthopedic surgery. Interventions focus on maximizing the person's function, independence, mobility and self-care abilities. A multidisciplinary approach is needed. Besides, mental health problems are also common among patients with cerebral palsy (Foster, Rai, Weller, Dixon, & Weller, 2010).
Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation, . (n.d.). How does Cerebral Palsy affect people?
This page explains how cerebral palsy could affect a person. Common aspects such as physical and cognitive problems, mobility, communication issues, pain, saliva control and emotional well-being are discussed. 引文
潘懿玲. (2017, 2017-10-02, January 01). 不可不知的腦性麻痺常見症狀. 中時電子報.
Discovery Channel, . (2000). The Miraculous Mind. The Brain Our Universe Within.
This is the 4th Episode of the Discovery Channel documentary series "The Brain: Our Universe Within" hosted by David Suzuki. This episode introduces the scientific findings about human brain. In particular, it focuses on how brain injury and brain disease (e.g., cerebral palsy, stroke) could affect us and how the brain could be repaired. 引文
Krigger, K. W. (2006). Cerebral palsy: An overview. American Family Physician, 73(1).
This paper provides a detailed overview of the causes, diagnosis, clinical features, assessment and treatments of cerebral palsy. Preventive care approaches are also highlighted. 引文
Oskoui, M. et al. (2013). An update on the prevalence of cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 55(6), 509–519.
This systematic study provides an updated review of the prevalence of cerebral palsy. It was estimated that cerebral palsy affects about 2.11 per 1000 new-born babies. 引文
Parkes, J. et al. (2008). Psychological problems in children with cerebral palsy: A cross‐sectional European study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 405–413.
This study examined the frequency of psychological symptoms in children with cerebral palsy. About a quarter of the participants exhibited significant psychosocial difficulties (e.g., peer problems). Psychosocial aspects of children with cerebral palsy should receive more attention. 引文
Raina, P. et al. (2005). The health and well-being of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. Pediatrics, 115(6), e626–e636.
This paper reports the findings in a study of the health of adult caregivers of children who suffered from cerebral palsy. It was found that the psychological and physical health of mothers was strongly affected by the caregiving demands and child behavior problems. A family-centred biopsychosocial framework for children with cerebral palsy is recommended. 引文
Fong, H. (2005). Focus on cerebral palsy research.
This edited book included updated research findings and insights in the field of cerebral palsy. The scientific information could enable us to better understand persons with cerebral palsy. This could also inform practice and policy planning for persons with cerebral palsy. 引文
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, . (2013). Cerebral palsy: Hope through research.
Developed by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, this resource includes useful information about cerebral palsy. Readers could know more about the causes, risk factors, prevention strategies, comorbidities and treatment of cerebral palsy after reading this resource. 引文