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頁面建立日期
2018.10.09

頁面更新日期
2019.10.21

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#性別議題

性小眾 Lgbt+


簡介 Introduction

性少眾,又稱同志或 LGBT ,是非異性戀者的通稱,亦可狹義地解說為女同性戀者( Lesbian )、男同性戀者( Gay )、雙性戀者( Bisexual )與跨性別者( Transgender ),其後亦加上了「 Q 」,代表酷兒( Queer )或對其性別認同感到疑惑的人( Questioning );並加上字母 「 I 」代表中性者 (intersex) 。 性少數一般統稱為 LGBTI 或 LGBT+ ,「 + 」是說明性傾向及性別認同是兩個不同的光譜,不管你生理上是男或是女,性別認同是指你心理上認同自己的性別是男或女;另一方面,性傾向是指你喜歡男生或女生。 鑑於不少傳統文化及宗教對性少數有成見,性少數社群一直飽受歧視及攻擊,甚至將性少數的偏好視為精神病患或異端思想,家人及專業人士往往施以強制治療及暴力,期望更正性少數的偏好 (Almeida, 2009) 。大眾及社會一般對性少數人士有偏見,令他們在教育、就業或其他應有的權利得不到公平的待遇 ( 林祖偉 , 2018 ; 法政匯思 , 2018 ) 。 近年全球各地都出現同志社會運動,爭取其應有的平等權利及建立同志友善社會 (Fredriksen-Goldsen, 2014) 。 隨著同志文化及社區的發展,同志運動在某些地方開始取得成效,例如將同性戀除罪化及除病化,並將性少數的歧視立法保障,並修訂法例以保障性少數可獲同等的待遇及保障。此外,不少國家亦開始討論同性婚姻合法化,而同志家庭亦獲同等機會領養子女 (Thoreson, 2014) 。

LGBT is broadly defined as an individual with a diversity of sexuality and gender identity. LGBT is an initial that stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender. Another two letters were included where letter “Q” stands for "Queer" or "Questioning" and letter “I” represents “intersex”. Sexual minorities are often named as LGBTQI or LGBT+ where “+” emphasis on the spectrums of gender identity and sexual orientation. Beside of your biological sex, gender identity is the gender you preferred and sexual orientation implies your preferences for relationship. As against traditional culture and religion value, sexual minorities are being discriminated and attacked constantly. Their sexual preference was viewed as mental illness and deviance which required forced treatment and violence from professionals and family members to rectify their choices (Almeida, 2009). LGBT members receive unequal rights and treatment in terms of education, employment and other rights due to prejudice of general public and the society ( 林祖偉 , 2018 ; 法政匯思 , 2018 ). LGBT social movements is emerging around the word in the hope of advocating equality of LGBT and LGBT-friendly society. With the constant development of LGBT culture and community, the outcome of LGBT social movement is becoming significant (Fredriksen-Goldsen, 2014). For example, homosexual is no longer classified as crime or mental illnesses. Also, law protection against discrimination were launched and exercised in various countries to ensure LGBT members receive equal rights and treatment. In some countries, same sex marriage is being recognized and these same-sex families earn equal rights to adopt children as other heterosexual families (Thoreson, 2014).

作者/Author:Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

陳韻如. (2018). 【LGBT+】雙性戀基督徒:性小眾不只是陽光和中產咁簡單. 香港01.
文中提及香港性小眾指本地的同志活動倡議的成份不大,性別議題亦很少沒涵蓋,而圈內的分歧常令組織者無法團結起來。年輕一代的行動者將有關的性別議題帶入教會及主流社會,顧及性小眾中被忽略的邊緣人士,致力匯聚各持己見的圈內成員,爭取平櫂。
引文
法政匯思. (2018). 看政府提出差別待遇同志的理由. 眾新聞.
裁定違反基本法的法例違憲並宣告無效。1991年,香港正式將男男同性性行為非刑事化,不過之後在法規及政策上,同志平權的進展不大。法庭有責任捍衛基本法及香港人權法案,保障香港人有平等權利,然而差別待遇不等於侵害了平等權利。文中評論多個重要的法庭案件及判詞,說明政府就同志差別待遇提出不同理據。但經不起法庭上的辯論,有關的制度應以公平及保障人櫂為依歸作出改善。
引文
林祖偉. (2018). 入境處同志案:香港LGBT平權再現進退節點. BBC中文.
文中概括了入境處同志案的發展,由他們二人的邂逅及婚姻到走入法院,成為香港同志運動的前線,爭取的不是同性婚姻,而是平權。
引文

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

Berlanti, G. (2018). Love, Simon.
Simon Spier, a seventeen-year old boy, was fallen in love online with an anonymous classmate, he started to resolving issues about his sexual oritentation to his family and friends as well as finding out the anonymous classmate.
引文
Lee, A. (2005). Brokeback Mountain.
This is about a story of a forbidden and secretive relationship between two cowboys, and their lives over the years. In 1963, rodeo cowboy Jack Twist and ranch hand Ennis Del Mar are hired as sheep herders in Wyoming. One night on Brokeback Mountain, Jack makes a drunken pass at Ennis that is eventually reciprocated. Though they get married with someone else, they kept up their tortured and sporadic affair over the course of 20 years.
引文
李安. (1993). 囍宴.
男主角與美籍男友同居多年,父母一直催他結婚,為了應付父母的要求,他與一名女畫家草草地假結婚。然而父母到了美國要求重新辦個熱鬧喜宴,電影充份描繪到傳統文化對男女婚姻的寄望以及現代人的自主,以及當中的張力。
引文

學術文章 Academic Papers

Almeida, J. et al. (2009). Emotional distress among LGBT youth: The influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(7), 1001–1014.
The study evaluated emotional distress among 9th-12th grade students, and examined whether the association between being lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgendered (i.e., "LGBT") and emotional distress was mediated by perceptions of having been treated badly or discriminated against because others thought they were gay or lesbian. Resutls showed that perceived discrimination accounted for increased depressive symptomatology among LGBT males and females, and accounted for an elevated risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation among LGBT males. Perceived discrimination is a likely contributor to emotional distress among LGBT youth.
引文
DeHaan, S. et al. (2013). The interplay between online and offline explorations of identity, relationships, and sex: A mixed-methods study with LGBT youth. Journal of Sex Research, 50(5), 421–434.
Although many LGBT members evaluated online sexual health resources with caution, they frequently used the Internet to compensate for perceived limitations in offline resources and relationships. Some of them turned to the Internet to find friends and romantic partners, citing the relative difficulty of establishing offline contact with LGBT peers. Further, they perceived the Internet as an efficient way to discover offline LGBT events and services relevant to sexual health. The study suggested that LGBT youth are motivated to fill gaps in their offline sexual health resources (e.g., books and personal communications) with online information. The Internet is a setting that can be harnessed to provide support for the successful development of sexual health.
引文
Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. et al. (2014). Creating a vision for the future: Key competencies and strategies for culturally competent practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults in the health and human services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 57(2-4), 80–107.
Sexual orientation and gender identity are not commonly addressed in health and human service delivery, or in educational degree programs. This article outlines 10 core competencies and aligns them with specific strategies to improve professional practice and service development to promote the well-being of LGBT older adults and their families. The articulation of key competencies is needed to provide a blueprint for action for addressing the growing needs of LGBT older adults, their families, and their communities.
引文
Haas, A. P. et al. (2010). Suicide and suicide risk in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations: Review and recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1), 10–51.
This article aims to investigate the suicidal behaviors and risk among LGBT+ members in the hope of suggesting better prevention and interventions as well as policy advocacy. Besides of providing a profile of completed suicides, attempted suicide and risk of suicide, mental health is the highest factor while stressors and triggers can be sense of rejection and isolation, experience in hostile and embarrassment as well as unequal treatments due to individual and institutional discrimination. Preventive programs and intervention should focus on connectedness of family and sexual minority community, building sexual identity positively and most importantly, enhance their social and psychological well-being.
引文
Israel, T. et al. (2008). Therapists’ helpful and unhelpful situations with LGBT clients: An exploratory study. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 361–368.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify a broad range of variables that characterize psychotherapists' perceptions of helpful and unhelpful therapy experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. The study suggested that a wide range of variables, including the therapeutic relationship, therapist response to the client's sexual orientation/gender identity, type of presenting concern, and the therapy environment, may affect the therapy experiences of this population. Authors also suggested that factors such as ethnicity, gender identity, therapy needs, and socioeconomic status should be considered when providing mental health services to this population.
引文
Mayer, K. H. M. D. et al. (2008). Sexual and gender minority health: what we know and what needs to be done. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6), 989–995.
This study focusses on the healthcare needs of sexual minorities to enhance research and clinical outcome. Besides of prevention and interventions on HIV and sexual transmitted infection, more LGBT+ friendly programs should be tailored to address their lifestyle, particularly on smoking and use of drug. For healthcare professionals, it is important to gain better sensitivity on LGBT+ from training to gain readiness to meet the needs of LGBT+ and minimize disparities and barriers.
引文

書籍 Books

Goldberg, A. E. & Allen, K. R. (2013). LGBT-parent families: Innovations in research and implications for practice.
This handbook provides a comprehensive, astute, and accessible view of LGBT-parent families. With contributions from an interdisciplinary and international group of leading scholars, this book covers varies contemporary topic concerning LGBT families, including transgender parenting and LGBTQ youth with LGBTQ parents. It covers both major and less-studied areas of research, exploring clinical, methodological, policy, and advocacy issues alongside the contexts in which parents practice their craft and children experience their world.
引文
Gerald P. Mallon. (2008). Social work practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.
This book updates classic text that has expanded its scope to include new content on practice with bisexual and transgender populations—and incorporated this content throughout. It provides a knowledge base of practice that will better prepare students and practitioners for working sensitively, competently, and effectively with LGBT individuals. The book covers content on LGBT populations as articulated by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) and the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE). It discusses the pragmatic aspects of social work with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. It will improve and reinforce competent practice with LGBT persons and their families in multiple settings.
引文
Thoreson, R. R. (2014). Transnational LGBT activism: Working for sexual rights worldwide.
This book investigates how The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC)’s early campaigns and highlights decisive shifts in the organization’s work from its founding to the present day. This book provides insight into why activists have framed particular demands in specific ways and how intergovernmental advocacy shapes the claims that activists ultimately make. The result is a uniquely balanced, empirical response to previous impressionistic and reductive critiques of Western human rights activists—and a clarifying perspective on the nature and practice of global human rights advocacy.
引文

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