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頁面建立日期
2018.10.09

頁面更新日期
2019.05.18

性別定型 Gender Role Stereotype


簡介 Introduction

性別定型的定義是指社會對兩性角色、能力、性格、行為等的既定看法和期望;是先入為主的觀念和假設。傳統社會對男女角色有特定期望,包括家庭角色、職業、性格、外貌、言行舉止、興趣等方面。社會對性別角色的要求和期望通過各種教化媒介確立和鞏固,並且影響每個人,及延續下去。性別定型為人們提供一個可依循的標準,學習成為一個社會大眾接受的人。但是個人可能因為自己不符合社會對性別角色的期望,產生性別認同的困惑;若被人取笑、欺凌,不僅會產生自卑感,而且對個人構成壓力,影響情緒。在性別定型的影響下,孩子無法跟隨自己的喜好和潛能發展,因而限制個人的發展。在人際關係中,人可能按性別定型的基礎去選擇朋友,對不符合定型標準的人心存偏見,甚至歧視。社會對男女性可以勝任的職業或崗位有既定想法或期望,因此往往未能從性別不同而被迫接受較差待遇,或其權利、自由等被限制。聯合國早在1995年已通過《北京行動綱要》,確立了「性別主流化」全球性策略,確保男女性可以公平合理地取得和享有社會資源和機會。2015年,港府的所有政策及部門全面實施「性別主流化」,並在公眾層面推廣性別平等觀念。
Gender (or sex) role stereotype refers to the views and expectations established by the society on gender role, ability, personality and behavior. Traditional society has certain expectation towards both female and male on family role, career, personality, appearance, behavior and interest. Each individual and the raising generations are being influenced under the impacts of media which greatly shapes the views and expectations of the society on gender role stereotype. Having expectation on gender role can provide a standard for the public to learn to become a person that is socially accepted. However, it may cause confusion on gender identity to many individuals. If a person is not being accepted by others because s/he does not fit in the expected gender role, s/he may become depressed, pressured, and have low self-esteem. Because of the limitations from gender role stereotype, young people cannot develop personal skills based on their interests. In interpersonal relationship, people may choose friends based on their gender, and hold discrimination towards those who do not fit in the gender role. The society holds different views and expectations toward female and male. Thus, it causes gender inequality in human rights and freedom. In 1995, the United Nations pursued the global movement of “Gender Mainstreaming” through the Beijing Platform for Action, ensuring male and female are able to equal in receiving social resources and opportunity. In 2015, the Hong Kong SAR government and departments follows the “Gender Mainstreaming”, and promote gender equality to the public.

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