Casual worker is a term usually used to describe irregular, flexible, non-permanent work such as street promotors distributing flyers, promotors in supermarket as well as people sending newspaper (水寶怡, 2017). Casual worker could be defined as work contracts that does not meet the requirement of “continuous contract of employment” under The Employment Ordinance (commonly known as "418", i.e., employees who work for 4 weeks or more and at least 18 hours per week). According to the Census and Statistics Department, nearly 150,000 people worked as casual workers (e.g. temporary jobs, short-term contracts etc.) in 2009, accounting for 5% of the total labour force (關注零散工權益聯席, 2014). Since they do not meet the “418” requirement under The Employment Ordinance, casual workers do not have equal rights and benefits as permanent workers including paid leave, sick leave, maternity leave and long service payment etc. The majority of casual workers are women from grass-root community. Such inequality widens the income gap between genders and leads to further job insecurity and exploitation (曾迦慧, 2018). The Government should, in the view of the current trend in labour market, take the measures from neigbour Asian cities to reform the social policy on labour and women including the calculation of staff benefits in proportion of their working hours as well as providing more support for women to turn their family roles to work flexibly (評論編輯室, 2018).
9Honey. (2018). Know your rights as a casual worker. Australia: nine.com.au.
Casual workers takes approximately 40% of the labour market in Australia. This clip shares how casual worker can calculate your rate despite of the number of working hours. Also, it points out the benefits of casual work such as flexibility, less requirement of technique and skills. 引文
De Cuyper, N. & De Witte, H. (2007). Job insecurity in temporary versus permanent workers: Associations with attitudes, well-being, and behaviour. Work & Stress, 21(1), 65–84.
Comparing temporary workers to permanent workers, job insecurity have negative association with psychological outcomes such as job and life satisfaction, their sense of work performance as well as their commitment to the organization. 引文
Arne L. Kalleberg. (2000). Nonstandard Employment Relations: Part-time, Temporary and Contract Work. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 341–365.
This article studies different forms of non-standard employment relationship in multi-discipline perspectives such as sociology, economic and psychology to investigate the factors contribute to emerging of these employment relationships. 引文
Smith, R. (2008). Legal Protections and Advocacy for Contingent or “Casual” Workers in the United States: A Case Study in Day Labor. Social Indicators Research, 88(1), 197–213.
Staffing strategies such as contingent and casual work is now longer for low-skilled workers but also applied in different occupation and industry. For these casual workers, they are being marginalized for labour protection and bargaining power. This article studies different strategies and social movements to develop leadership and advocacy to enhance their rights and protection. 引文
Tremblay, D. (2008). From Casual Work to Economic Security; The Paradoxical Case of Self-Employment. Social Indicators Research, 88(1), 115–130.
This paper aims to introduce and define concepts of casual work and its characteristics of job and economic insecurity. Social policy (e.g. parental leaves) is being reviewed to see how it makes an impact to face the transformation in labour market. 引文
Zeytinoglu, I. et al. (2004). Part-Time and Casual Work in Retail Trade : Stress and other Factors Affecting the Workplace. Relations Industrielles, 59(3), 516–544.
This article examines how workshop relationships make an impact on occupation stress and their workplace. Part-time and casual workers are under great pressure from juggling jobs to jobs, facing high turnover in workplace as well as more gender-related issues. This article recommends better gender equality and work-life balance and positive workplace. 引文
Burgess, J. & Connell, J. (2004). International perspectives on temporary work. London: Routledge.
For the past few decades, temporary work in labor market raised rapidly as employers can reduce their cost with short term contracts. On the other hand, workers has less power to protect their rights should they are employed as temporary jobs. 引文
Torben Elgaard Jensen & Ann Westenholz. (2004). Identity in the Age of the New Economy Life in Temporary and Scattered Work Practices.
This book examines the concepts of new economy which emphasis on knowledge and network. The contemporary forms of employment create drastic change on individual’s identity and their subjectivity. As consequences of economic, social and cultural shift, the new economy becomes more post-modern with risks. 引文