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跨性別 Transgender

簡介 Introduction

跨性別是指性別認同或表達與生理性別不同的人,但這是與性傾向無關。所謂性別認同是指個人對自己的性別身份及角色的認同,性別已不再局限於二元對立的男與女之間,而是一個性別光譜包括了無性別者、流性別者、雙性別者等。另一方面,性別表達是指自己表現的性別氣質,從行為舉止、興趣、化妝妝打扮等反映自己偏好的性別氣質,變裝者及偽娘就是常見例子。 對於他們的性別認同及表達,傳統心理及精神醫療體制大多診斷他們為性別認同障礙,需要進行強制的更正治療。近年,有關的診斷的準確性及界定都有所改變,將跨性別人士與性別不安的精神症患者分開 ( 香港性文化學會 , 2017) ,好讓精神病患者得到確切的治療及復康外,亦讓跨性別人士擺脫精神病的標籤,得到合理的心理評估以取得不同程序及類型的醫療介入。不少跨性別人士會以醫學手段進行不同的手術及治療,例如荷爾蒙、性別重置手術以及其他外科或重塑手術,從生理性別轉換到自己認同的性別角色 (McCann & Sharek, 2016) 。「跨仔」則指由女轉為男的男性,而「跨女」指由女轉為男的女性。 跨性別人士往往受到傳統文化及宗教所批評及壓迫,他們由確認自己的性別認同、向家人及他人「出櫃」甚至從外表到身體的性別轉換,這個過程不但在心理上做成種種不安及負面的情緒,家人、學校、職場的暴力及不公平對待令他們在社會及財政上邊緣化 ( 莫坤菱 , 2018) ,甚至社會上的醫療體制及法律體制的接納及支持亦是很有限 (White & Jaclyn, 2015) 。雖說如此,性少眾的社會運動亦將跨性別社群包括在內,爭取社會確認跨性別的存在,無需強制跨性別人士要接受性別重置手術以取得其性別身份及平等權利,例如身份証的登記、婚姻及使用男性或女性的福利等 ( 早安 , 2017) 。

Transgender implies a person whose gender identity or gender expression differs from their assigned sex at birth. However, being transgender is not related to sexual orientation. Gender identity is defined as a sense of own gender. Instead of gender binary categorizing people as men or women, gender is interpreted as a spectrum including agender, genderfluid, pangender and etc. For gender expression, such terms focus on the cultural context on how people make use of their behaviors and manners, interest, make up and appearances to express their preferred gender roles. Cross-dresser, drag king/queen for examples. Regarding their gender identity and expression, traditional psychosis system tended to diagnose them as gender identity disorder which require forced treatment to rectify their preferences. Nowadays, the accuracy of such diagnosis and classification are being questioned. Such shift facilitates better diagnosis and adequate treatment for those who have mental illness ( 香港性文化學會 , 2017). On the other hand, transgender people can access proper psychological assessment for different level and types of medical intervention for sex change such as hormone therapy, sex reassignment therapy and other surgical reconstruction procedure (McCann & Sharek,2016). The terms "trans-masculine" means male who transitioned from female to male and "trans-feminine" means female who transitioned from male to female. Transgender people often being criticized and oppressed by traditional culture and religion. From they recognize their gender identity, “coming out” to their families and others, making changes from appearance to physical body, they bear great distress and negative emotions in such a rocky journey ( 莫坤菱 , 2018). Violence and unequal treatment from family, schools and workplace marginalized them socially and financially (White & Jaclyn, 2015). The society and government provide limited recognition and support for them. Having said that, LGBT social movement includes transgender community in the hope of raising more recognition and equal rights of transgender people. Transgender people should have their gender identity recognized without compulsory requirement of undergoing sex reassignment treatment. For example, the gender registered in identity card, equal rights for male/female as well as marriage ( 早安 , 2017).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau


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