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敘事工作 Narrative Practice

簡介 Introduction

敘事工作(Narrative Practice;NP )是一種透過敘述故事重構生命主線的方略, 有助參與者探索自己的資源及優勢,從而面對挑戰。在輔導及心理治療領域,敘事方法的運用始於1980年代,當時主要被稱為「敘事治療 Narrative Therapy; NT」。隨著應用領域日漸廣泛,Narrative Practice 與 Narrative Therapy 兩組用語指涉不同重點,亦互通互用。米高懷特 (Michael White) 廣被業界認為是敘事工作的主要創始人,他在一部2007年出版的著作中將相關技巧整合成數個「對話地圖」(conversations maps) (White, 2007) ,這些「地圖」成為敘事工作對話的重要指引。米高懷特在該著作中展現兼容的取向,歡迎延續創新,更選擇在書名中用上Narrative Practice (而非Narrative Therapy)一詞。隨著這輔導方略漸被認同,世界各地有更多持份者參與發展出多種技巧,令它的內容更豐富,應用層面更廣泛。例如,Duvall 和 Beres提出三幕劇架構以指引治療進程(Duvall & Béres, 2011),其思路與米高懷特提出的「搭架式對話」異曲同工、相輔相成。除了用於心理治療及情緒輔導外,敘事工作理論近年更被廣泛應用在人物專訪、小組討論、社區教育等不同領域 (Chan, Au-yeung, Chiu, Tsang, & Tsui, 2020, in press; Chan, Ngai, & Wong, 2012)。 此外,世界各地不同組織,亦不時舉辦有關敘事工作的訓練課程及交流會議,令其理論與實踐得以持續發展。

Narrative Practice (NP) is an approach that uses narrative means to enable participants to reconstruct dominant plots of their life stories, it assists participants to explore their resources and strengths to face their challenges. In counselling and psychotherapy, the use of narrative means began in the 1980s, and NP was mainly referred as “Narrative Therapy” (NT). As this approach has increasingly covered a wider range of application contexts, the term Narrative Practice and Narrative Therapy refer to different emphases, and they are also used interchangeably. Michael White has been widely accepted to be the key founder of NP, he organized related techniques into some “conversation maps” in a 2007 publication (White, 2007), and these maps serve as important guidelines to NP. Michael White has denoted an inclusive orientation in this book, welcome further innovations, and chose to use the term Narrative Practice (rather than Narrative Therapy) in the book title. As NP has been gaining more recognition as a counselling approach, stakeholders worldwide have developed more techniques to enrich its contents and widen its applications. For example, Duvall and Béres (2011) have proposed a three-act play framework guiding practitioners to facilitate therapeutic changes, they have seen that such a framework is in line with the scaffolding framework mentioned in White (2007). NP has been applied not only in psychotherapy and counselling settings, but also in interview, group discussion, and community education (Chan, Au-yeung, Chiu, Tsang, & Tsui, 2020, in press; Chan, Ngai, & Wong, 2012). Furthermore, there are organizations worldwide promoting the use of NP; they provide trainings and organize conferences, facilitating a continual development of its theory and practice.

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