男性和女性在很多方面往往也受到不相等的對待（e.g., 權力、資源分配、責任）。這個社會現象一般稱為性別不平等，在現代社會裡這仍然是一個重要的議題。性別不平等的問題可見於很多已發展國家和發展中國家。性別平等不僅是一個道德上的要求。性別不平等跟很多社會問題也有密切關係（e.g., 兒童受虐和疏忽照顧、暴力、精神健康問題、兒童死亡）(e.g., Brinda, Rajkumar, & Enemark, 2015; Caprioli, 2005; Kira et al., 2015; Klevens & Ports, 2017)。除此之外，研究顯示很多方面的性別不平等（e.g., 就業和教育）可以為經濟增長帶來顯著的影響 (Klasen & Lamanna, 2009)。因此，一些學者已指出，「教育和健康方面的性別差異並不是一個有效益的經濟選擇」(Dollar & Gatti, 1999, p. 1)。為了對抗和扭轉性別不平等，無論在個人層面抑或是社會層面，我們也需要努力。
Men and women are usually treated unequally in many aspects (e.g., power, resource distribution, responsibilities). This social phenomenon is geneally known as gender inequality, which is still an important issue in the modern society. The problem of gender inequality can be observed in many developed and developing countries. Gender equality is not just a moral imperative. Gender inequality is also associated with a number of social problems (e.g., child abuse and neglect, violence, mental health problems, child mortality) (e.g., Brinda, Rajkumar, & Enemark, 2015; Caprioli, 2005; Kira et al., 2015; Klevens & Ports, 2017). In addition, research shows that gender inequality in many aspects (e.g., employment and education) could have considerable impacts on economic growth as well (Klasen & Lamanna, 2009). Therefore, some scholars has pointed out that “gender differentials in education and health are not an efficient economic choice” (Dollar & Gatti, 1999, p. 1). In order to combate and reverse gender inequality, efforts should be made in both individual level and social level.
Brinda, E. M. et al. (2015). Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: A cross-national study of 138 countries. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 97.
Gender inequality is associated with maternal health and could affect the well-being of children in many ways. Using data from 138 countries, this study shows that there is a positive association between the Gender Inequality Index and neonatal, infant and under five mortality rates. It was said that combating gender inequality and promoting the social well-being of women may improve the survival of both boys and girls. CITATION
Caprioli, M. (2005). Primed for violence: The role of gender inequality in predicting internal conflict. International Studies Quarterly, 49(2), 161–178.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship betwen gender inequality and intrastate conflict. It was found that states characterized by gender inequality are more likely to have intrastate conflict. CITATION
Jayachandran, S. (2015). The roots of gender inequality in developing countries. Annual Review of Economics, 7(1), 63–88.
This paper discusses some of the potential causes of gender inequality in developing countries. It was argued that society-specific factors such as cultural norms may play an important role. CITATION
Kira, I. A. et al. (2015). Are the negative mental health effects of gender discrimination (GD) salient across cultures? Does self-esteem mediate these effects: GD as a continuous traumatic stress and the pathways to its negative dynamics? Psychology, 6(01), 93.
In this study, it was found that gender discrimination could predict a number of mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety. CITATION
Klasen, S. & Lamanna, F. (2009). The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth: New evidence for a panel of countries. Feminist Economics, 15(3), 91–132.
This paper provides evidence which suggests that gender inequality in education and employment could considerably reduce economic growth. CITATION
Klevens, J. & Ports, K. A. (2017). Gender inequity associated with increased child physical abuse and neglect: A cross-country analysis of population-based surveys and country-level statistics. Journal of Family Violence, 32(8), 799–806.
Using data from 57 countries, this shows that gender inequity is a societal-level risk factor for child abuse and neglect. CITATION
Winslow, S. & Davis, S. N. (2016). Gender inequality across the academic life course. Sociology Compass, 10(5), 404–416.
Gender inequality also affects the academic field. This article reviews existing research and shows that gender inequality occurs throughout the academic career life course. The impacts of institutionalized policies and subtle biases on gender inequality are emphasized. CITATION
Dollar, D. & Gatti, R. (1999). Gender inequality, income, and growth: Are good times good for women? (Vol. 1). Development Research Group, The World Bank Washington, DC.
The report discusses the relationship between gender inequality and economic development and explains why societies that do not invest in girls need to pay a price for it (i.e., slower growth, reduced income). CITATION
Lorber, J. (2011). Gender inequality: Feminist theories and politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
This book talks about evolving theories related to gender inequality and how feminism could help redress gender inequality. It also highlights feminism's ongoing political activism. CITATION
Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. New York: Oxford University Press.
This book combines perspectives and research from sociology and psychology and discusses how gender inequality remains in our society. CITATION