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2018.11.07

Page Update Date
2019.10.21

長者就業 Unretirement


簡介 Introduction

長者就業是一個新興的全球人力資源趨勢,招聘退休人士以義工或僱員重返工作場所 (Hess, Hofäcker & König, 2016)。長者就業與他們的身心健康密切相關, ,過去職業的性質、工作滿足感、家庭成員的支援和當前工作場所的安排 (Kulik, 2009)。他們有些是正在尋找新的事業發展,或擔當導師提供諮詢和建議(Armstrong-Stassen & Staats, 2012; Platts, Corna, Worts, McDonough, Price & Glaser, 2017),但亦有人因經濟困難而重回工作市場 (國際中心,2018)。 與長者就業有關的主題包括修訂退休福利和政策、修改勞工法例和保障、老年人福利和保健服務、以及退休人口的職業培訓和教育政策 (林冠良, 2018)。

Unretirement is an up-and-coming global human resources practice of recruiting retired individuals to return to workplace as volunteers or employees (Hess, Hofäcker & König, 2016). Unretirement is closely related to their physical and mental fitness, the nature of previous occupation, job satisfaction, support from family members and current workplace setting (Kulik, 2009). Some of them are looking for new career development or providing consultation and advices as a mentor (Armstrong-Stassen & Staats, 2012; Platts, Corna, Worts, McDonough, Price & Glaser, 2017), but some of them return due to financial hardship (國際中心, 2018). Topics related to unretirement not only include review of retirement welfare and policy, but also review of current employment law and protection, welfare and health services for senior citizens and occupational training and education policy for the retired populations (林冠良, 2018).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

國際中心. (2018, 2018-10-01, January 01). 真的好想退休...南韓70至74歲老人,竟有三分之一仍在職場打拼. 風傳媒. 台灣: 風傳媒.
本文報導韓國長者就業情況,65至69歲的就業率為45.5%,70至74歲長者的就業率達33.1%,主要原因是經濟困難而能取得退休金的長者人數不多,加上子女供養比率下降,長者因健康及不同因素而只能擔任臨時工作及勞動的工種,難以脫貧。
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林冠良. (2018, 2018-04-21, January 01). 長者就業要考慮周詳. 信報. 香港.
筆者認為長者重投就業市場,既可解決勞動力不足問題,亦可紓緩退休人士經濟的問題,但政治應詳細考慮政策配套,包括勞工保障、強積金政策、醫療開支、以及就業支援等。
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余婉蘭. (2016, 2016-03-15, January 01). 【高齡者的職場】港長者就業落後 「年輕老人」其實渴望工作. 香港01. 香港.
香港不少熱愛工作的退休人士仍有意重返職場,但工種往往只限低技術工作,未能善用其過去的工作經驗及技能。政府應參照國外的政策助退休人士以不同形式工作,推動企業就業、提供職業訓練以及延遲退休年齡等,提升65歲以上人口的就業率。
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影視作品 Movie and TV Series

Meyers, N. (2015). The Intern. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.
A 71-years-old retired executive started to work for a young founder and CEO of an e-commerce fashion company. Although everyone was skeptical about his performance, his dedication and rich life-experience not only made him a reliable colleage at workplace, but also become a mentor for his supervisor's personal life.
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呂家敏等人. (2014). 銀髮兵團的就業潛力. 香港: 大學線.
政府統計數字表示,現時65歲以上的勞動人口只佔總勞動人口約7%,遠低於鄰近國家。 本港長者一邊廂想積極投入工作,另一邊廂又只能從事勞動工作,無法找到合適工作。
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謝瑞芳. (2018). 有用無用. 樂齡帥靚正. 香港: 香港電台.
香港人口老化情況與日本相若,但日本的長者就業率為香港的一倍,本集報導日本政府的政策及措施,包括與企業合作,完善長者就業的條款、設立長者創業顧問服務,長者福利及生活補貼,以及長者的教育。
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學術文章 Academic Papers

Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Staats, S. (2012). Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 75(1), 45–69.
This study investiage the factors of unretirenment behaviors between men and women who reitred from executive and professional occupations. Those who retired from a professional occupations, particularly women, are more like to unretire than those retired from managerial level. Important factors includes age-friendly practice, barriers in recruitment and human resources, training and development potentials.
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Okun, M. A. & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Motives and intent to continue organizational volunteering among residents of a retirement community area. Journal of Community Psychology, 20(3), 183–187.
This study investigate the intention of doing community service among the senior volunteers. Their motivations to constant service to the community are mainly for better knowledge and making the society to become adjustive.
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Platts, L. G. et al. (2017). Returns to work after retirement: a prospective study of unretirement in the United Kingdom. Ageing and Society, 1–26.
This paper provides a definition of unretirement as subsequently returning to paid jobs (approximaly 30 hours per week or less) as partcial retirement. Unretirement is closely related to male, better health codition, higher education background, having financial pressure (e.g. mortgage) and living with a working spouse.
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Tuomi, K. et al. (2001). Promotion of work ability, the quality of work and retirement. Occupational Medicine, 51(5), 318–324.
This study test the validity of a model for work ability: 1) work demands and ecology; 2) workplace and work community; 3) enhancement of health and functioning; 4) sense of professional competence. Work ability is positively correlates to quality of work and satisfaction in sustaining in the work.
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書籍 Books

Hess, M. et al. (2016). Delaying retirement: progress and challenges of active ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
This book examine retirement behaviors changes in relation to the current policy change from early retirement to active ageing. Social inequality becomes a serious concern when they move forward to retirement.
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Kawano, S. (2017). Senior volunteers and post-retirement well-being in Japan. Happiness and Well-being in Japan (pp. 202–220). London: Routledge.
This book chapter studies the relationship between the volunteering experience of the retired in mortuary and their senses of well-being in terms of being idling at home and loneliness.
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Kulik, L. (2009). Explaining individual empowerment among elderly women volunteers in nonprofit organizations: The Israeli case. Handbook of Business and Finance: Multinational Companies, Venture Capital and Non-Profit Organizations. UK: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
This study interviewed 146 retired women on their sense of empowerment from volunteering in social services based on the ecological model. The result reveals that positive experience in volunteer work leads to better empowerment, support from family and sense of satisfactions.
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