Unretirement is an up-and-coming global human resources practice of recruiting retired individuals to return to workplace as volunteers or employees (Hess, Hofäcker & König, 2016). Unretirement is closely related to their physical and mental fitness, the nature of previous occupation, job satisfaction, support from family members and current workplace setting (Kulik, 2009). Some of them are looking for new career development or providing consultation and advices as a mentor (Armstrong-Stassen & Staats, 2012; Platts, Corna, Worts, McDonough, Price & Glaser, 2017), but some of them return due to financial hardship (國際中心, 2018). Topics related to unretirement not only include review of retirement welfare and policy, but also review of current employment law and protection, welfare and health services for senior citizens and occupational training and education policy for the retired populations (林冠良, 2018).
Meyers, N. (2015). The Intern. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures.
A 71-years-old retired executive started to work for a young founder and CEO of an e-commerce fashion company. Although everyone was skeptical about his performance, his dedication and rich life-experience not only made him a reliable colleage at workplace, but also become a mentor for his supervisor's personal life. CITATION
Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Staats, S. (2012). Gender Differences in How Retirees Perceive Factors Influencing Unretirement. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 75(1), 45–69.
This study investiage the factors of unretirenment behaviors between men and women who reitred from executive and professional occupations. Those who retired from a professional occupations, particularly women, are more like to unretire than those retired from managerial level. Important factors includes age-friendly practice, barriers in recruitment and human resources, training and development potentials. CITATION
Okun, M. A. & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Motives and intent to continue organizational volunteering among residents of a retirement community area. Journal of Community Psychology, 20(3), 183–187.
This study investigate the intention of doing community service among the senior volunteers. Their motivations to constant service to the community are mainly for better knowledge and making the society to become adjustive. CITATION
Platts, L. G. et al. (2017). Returns to work after retirement: a prospective study of unretirement in the United Kingdom. Ageing and Society, 1–26.
This paper provides a definition of unretirement as subsequently returning to paid jobs (approximaly 30 hours per week or less) as partcial retirement. Unretirement is closely related to male, better health codition, higher education background, having financial pressure (e.g. mortgage) and living with a working spouse. CITATION
Tuomi, K. et al. (2001). Promotion of work ability, the quality of work and retirement. Occupational Medicine, 51(5), 318–324.
This study test the validity of a model for work ability: 1) work demands and ecology; 2) workplace and work community; 3) enhancement of health and functioning; 4) sense of professional competence. Work ability is positively correlates to quality of work and satisfaction in sustaining in the work. CITATION
Hess, M. et al. (2016). Delaying retirement: progress and challenges of active ageing in Europe, the United States and Japan. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
This book examine retirement behaviors changes in relation to the current policy change from early retirement to active ageing. Social inequality becomes a serious concern when they move forward to retirement. CITATION
Kawano, S. (2017). Senior volunteers and post-retirement well-being in Japan. Happiness and Well-being in Japan (pp. 202–220). London: Routledge.
This book chapter studies the relationship between the volunteering experience of the retired in mortuary and their senses of well-being in terms of being idling at home and loneliness. CITATION
Kulik, L. (2009). Explaining individual empowerment among elderly women volunteers in nonprofit organizations: The Israeli case. Handbook of Business and Finance: Multinational Companies, Venture Capital and Non-Profit Organizations. UK: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
This study interviewed 146 retired women on their sense of empowerment from volunteering in social services based on the ecological model. The result reveals that positive experience in volunteer work leads to better empowerment, support from family and sense of satisfactions. CITATION