Social enterprise refers to organizations that aims to maximize social benefits by making profits to achieve its social service mission (林曦彤, 2018). According to the statistics from Hong Kong Council of Social Service, there is approximately 650 social enterprise in Hong Kong, mainly are in catering and retail industry (阮斌, 2018). Hong Kong government has been committed to develop social enterprises and its accumulated subsidy reached to HKD 1.8 billion, but the government has not yet legislate the definition of social enterprises as well as creating friendly policy for social enterprise development (薛友德, 2014).
Defourny, J. & Nyssens, M. (2010). Conceptions of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and divergences. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 32–53.
This paper first review how the concept of social enterpreneurship rooted in Europe and United States. Authors studied how these concepts are being conceptualized converged and deverged in the societies in these countries. CITATION
Doherty, B. et al. (2006). The diverse world of social enterprise:A collection of social enterprise stories. International Journal of Social Economics, 33(5-6), 361–375.
This paper highlight the diversity of 11 social enterprises around the world competing against the competitive commercial world as well as colaboarting with useful workers to achieve the vision and mission of these societ enterprise. CITATION
Kerlin, J. A. (2010). A comparative analysis of the global emergence of social enterprise. Voluntas, 21(2), 162–179.
This article overviews the concept and practice of social enterprise among seven regions and countries around the world to identify factors interfering the mission and vision of social enterprise. CITATION
Spear, R. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A different model? International Journal of Social Economics, 33(5-6), 399–410.
This paper aims to develop a framework to analyze and define social entrepreneurship in different dimensions. Based on several case studies of social enterprises, this paper makes suggestion on effective social policy. CITATION