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零散工 Casual Workers

簡介 Introduction

零散工通常是指一些工時較短、不穩定或零碎的工種,例如派傳單員、超市食品推廣員和派報紙員等等 (水寶怡, 2017)。零散工亦可泛指因未能符合《僱傭條例》「連續性合約」的條件,(俗稱「418」,即僱員連續工作4 星期或以上,而每星期最少 18 小時) 的工作。根據統計處資料,2009年近15萬人從事部零散工 (包括:兼職工、臨時工、短期合約工等),佔總勞動人口的5% (關注零散工權益聯席, 2014)。礙於零散工不符合《僱傭條例》中「418」的條件,無法享有與長約工的勞工權益,例如:有薪假期及病假、有薪產假、長期服務金等。零散工以基層婦女為多,男女就業的人口及收入差距加劇,她們沒有任何保障又受剝削 (曾迦慧, 2018)。政府應就勞動市場的趨勢,參考亞洲其他地區的對策,改善勞工及婦女的政策,例如以按工時比例計算僱員保障、支援婦女可短暫離開家庭崗位去投入勞工市場等 (評論編輯室, 2018)。

Casual worker is a term usually used to describe irregular, flexible, non-permanent work such as street promotors distributing flyers, promotors in supermarket as well as people sending newspaper (水寶怡, 2017). Casual worker could be defined as work contracts that does not meet the requirement of “continuous contract of employment” under The Employment Ordinance (commonly known as "418", i.e., employees who work for 4 weeks or more and at least 18 hours per week). According to the Census and Statistics Department, nearly 150,000 people worked as casual workers (e.g. temporary jobs, short-term contracts etc.) in 2009, accounting for 5% of the total labour force (關注零散工權益聯席, 2014). Since they do not meet the “418” requirement under The Employment Ordinance, casual workers do not have equal rights and benefits as permanent workers including paid leave, sick leave, maternity leave and long service payment etc. The majority of casual workers are women from grass-root community. Such inequality widens the income gap between genders and leads to further job insecurity and exploitation (曾迦慧, 2018). The Government should, in the view of the current trend in labour market, take the measures from neigbour Asian cities to reform the social policy on labour and women including the calculation of staff benefits in proportion of their working hours as well as providing more support for women to turn their family roles to work flexibly (評論編輯室, 2018).

作者/Author: Carmen K.M. Yau

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