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大腦麻痺Cerebral Palsy

簡介 Introduction

大腦麻痺是一群神經發育疾病,每1000人中便影響著大約2.11人(Oskoui, Coutinho, Dykeman, Jetté, & Pringsheim, 2013)。這是其中一個最常見的兒童殘疾。大腦麻痺的臨床表現因人而異,當中包括運動協調能力不佳、震顫、肌肉僵硬和認知問題 (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, 2013)。大腦麻痺通常由大腦發育異常或發育中大腦受損所導致 (e.g., 腦損傷、中風、腦部缺氧和童年時腦膜炎)。患有大腦麻痺的兒童通常需要介入治療,譬如物理治療、職業治療、言語治療和外科手術。介入的重點是盡可能增加患者的功能、獨立性、活動能力和自理能力。這需要跨領域、多方面之照護。此外,心理健康問題在腦癱患者中也很常見 (Foster, Rai, Weller, Dixon, &Weller, 2010)。

Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disease which affects about 2.11 out of 1000 people (Oskoui, Coutinho, Dykeman, Jetté, & Pringsheim, 2013). This is one of the most common childhood disabilities. The clinical presentations vary among patients, such as poor motor coordination, tremors, stiff muscles and cognitive impairments (National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke, 2013). Cerebral palsy is often the result of abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain (e.g., brain injury, stroke, hypoxia to the brain and meningitis during childhood). Children with cerebral palsy generally require interventions such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy and orthopedic surgery. Interventions focus on maximizing the person's function, independence, mobility and self-care abilities. A multidisciplinary approach is needed. Besides, mental health problems are also common among patients with cerebral palsy (Foster, Rai, Weller, Dixon, & Weller, 2010).

作者/Author: Hong Wang Fung

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