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真人圖書館 Human/Living Library

簡介 Introduction

真人圖書館(Human/Living Library)泛指一種教學法,旨在消除偏見及歧視,其概念是大眾可透過“借閱真人”與不同人物溝通交流,藉此促進社會聯繫及消除偏見。此概念在2000年由一個名為 “Stop the Violence” (丹麥語原名:Foreningen Stop Volden)的丹麥青年機構發起,並成立第一個 “真人圖書館 (The Living Library)”。世界各地均有組織陸續響應,在美國、澳洲、加拿大、中國、香港、日本及台灣等地均有不同大小的真人圖書館。學者認為真人圖書館方法能幫助消除偏見(Goebel, 2011; Kudo, Motohashi, Enomoto, Kataoka, & Yajima, 2011; Orosz, Bánki, Bőthe, Tóth-Király, & Tropp, 2016)、促進社會共融及和諧(R. Garbutt, 2009; Kinsley, 2009)、推動社會公義(Stewart & Richardson, 2011)、維護及促進人權(R. G. Garbutt, 2008)、以及增進知識交流(Stewart & Richardson, 2011)。自2000年開始, “Living Library” 一詞是這套教學法的普遍統稱。在2010年, “Living Library Organisation” (由其中一名丹麥真人圖書館發起者Ronni Abergel統籌的機構) 改名為 “Human Library Organisation”(HLO)。在2013年,“The Human Library™” 亦開始註冊成為商標。歐洲委員會相關工作小組解釋 “Human Library” 及 “Living Library”均指同一運動, “Living Library”泛指這套方法及概念,而 “Human Library”則漸漸地被 HLO 認為是該組織專屬活動的代名詞 (Little, Nemutlu, Magic, & Molnár, 2011)。有中國學者自2008年開始將真人圖書館概念引入內地,香港亦有團體在2011年開始引入真人圖書館活動。現時香港已有多個機構參考歐洲 Living/Human Library的方法,成立了林林種種的真人圖書館,但均與丹麥的 HLO 沒直接關係,也沒被 HLO 授權。香港各類真人圖書館普遍旨在幫助弱勢社群,例如少數族裔、復元人士、殘障人士、長者及女性等。

Human library (or living library) is a pedagogy that seeks to challenge prejudice and discrimination, it refers to the concept of allowing people to “borrow a person” for social contact in order to promote social inclusiveness and challenge prejudice. This concept was started by a Danish Youth NGO called “Stop the Violence” (Foreningen Stop Volden) and they established “The Living Library” in 2000. The concept has been adopted and adapted globally and many human libraries have been established at places such as Ameraica, Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan. Scholars studied the impacts of human library and found it helps reduce prejudice (Goebel, 2011; Kudo, Motohashi, Enomoto, Kataoka, & Yajima, 2011; Orosz, Bánki, Bőthe, Tóth-Király, & Tropp, 2016), create social inclusion and harmony (R. Garbutt, 2009; Kinsley, 2009), enhance social justice (Stewart & Richardson, 2011), activating human rights (R. G. Garbutt, 2008) and knowledge sharing (Shannon & Bossaller, 2015). Since 2000, the term “Living Library” has referred to the pedagogy. In 2010, “the Living Library Organisation” (an organization led by Ronni Abergel – one of the founders of the Living Library event in Copenhagen) was renamed “Human Library Organisation” (HLO), and Ronni has gradually trademarked the term “The Human Library™” since 2013. A working group of the European Council explained that the term “Human Library” and “Living Library” refer to the same movement (Little et al., 2011). In general, the term “Living Library” refers to the overall concept and relevant movements, while the term “Human Library” has been gradually used as events specifically run by the HLO. In 2008, the concept of “Living Library” was introduced to academics in mainland China. Since then, living libraries have been established and applied into various social services in mainland China. Since 2011, many Hong Kong based social groups have adopted and/or adapted such living library approach, but none of them have officially linkages with the HLO in Denmark. These living libraries serve to connect the community with various disadvantaged groups, such as ethnic minorities, people recovered from mental health issues, people with physical disabilities, elderly and female, etc..

作者/Author: Chitat Chan & Hoyee Au-Yeung

新聞及政府資訊 News&Government Information

陳俊村. (2016, 2016-06-30, January 01). 借人不借書 --「真人圖書館」 從丹麥走向全球. 大紀元時報.
黃桂桂. (2019, 2019-01-15, December 23). 理大真人圖書網絡 收集逾百「活生生」真人故事. 香港01.

影視作品 Movie and TV Series

(2019). 真人圖書館. 星期日檔案.

學術文章 Academic Papers

Garbutt, R. (2009). Social inclusion and local practices of belonging. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(3), 84–108.
This review uses two community-based projects, Lismore’s Living Library and an Anzac Day peace project called ‘Remembering and Healing Old Wounds’, to illustrate the practices of belonging and promot inclusion.
Garbutt, R. G. (2008). The living library: some theoretical approaches to a strategy for activating human rights and peace.
This article introduced the development of living library from Europe to Australia. It highlighted the theoretical approaches to living library research, using examples of Lismore's Living Library and the National Living Library Strategy project.
Goebel, N. (2011). Fags, Blacks and Hutterites: Challenging Prejudice and Stereotypes with the augustana human library. Retrieved from American Library Association, Retreived from http://www. ala. org/acrl/sites/ala. org. acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/nationa l/2011/papers/fags_blacks. pdf.
This study captured example of augustana human library in Canada, which focused on duscussing prejudice and stereotypes. Pre/porst-test of Human Book and Reader on opinions and experiences was examined. Number of responses and percentage were reported.
Kinsley, L. (2009). Lismore’s living library: Connecting communities through conversation. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22(1), 20.
This study captured the development and activities of Lismore's living library at Australia, a very first project of living library in Australia. This paper described the works done in the project.
Kudo, K. et al. (2011). Bridging differences through dialogue: preliminary findings of the outcomes of the Human Library in a university setting. Shanghai International Conference on Social Science (SICSS), Crowne Plaza Shanghai Fudan, Shanghai, China. Retrieved from http://humanlibrary. org/assets/files/2011% 20SICSS% 20paper.
Example of Dokkyo Human Library project that was held in Japan from May 2010 to March 2011. Evaluation study was carried out with post-event questionnaire and interviews.
Orosz, G. et al. (2016). Don’t judge a living book by its cover: effectiveness of the living library intervention in reducing prejudice toward Roma and LGBT people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46(9), 510–517.
Evaluation study of living library intervention to N=105 high school students in Hungary. Comparison between have/no contact with Roma and LGBT community in social distance and modern racism was examined with a pre-posttest design. Significance differences were found in both social distance and modern racism for those who had contact with a Roma "Book" and a LGBT "Book".
Stewart, K. N. & Richardson, B. E. (2011). Libraries by the people, for the people: living libraries and their potential to enhance social justice. Information, Society and Justice Journal, 4(2), 83–92.
This article stated that living libraries hold tremendous potential to raise awareness for issues regarding social justice. As the living library provide opportunities for readers to access the living books, it helps reader to develop deeper understanding of various social issues.

書籍 Books

Little, N. et al. (2011). Don’t judge a book by its cover – The Living Library Organisers Guide. Hungary: Council of Europe.
This book explains the history and methodlogy of the Living Library, as well as introduces the necessary elements for thos who are interested in applying the living library pedagogy.

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