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特殊學習需要 Special Education Needs

簡介 Introduction

特殊教育需要(簡稱「SEN」)的學生是指在學習上需要特別教育支援的學生。常見的特殊學習需要包括:自閉症譜系障礙、注意力不足/過度活躍症、特殊學習困難(如讀寫障礙、言語/溝通障礙)、視覺障礙、聽力障礙、智力障礙、肢體傷殘、情緒及行為問題、精神病和資優教育(香港特別行政區政府教育局, 2017)。有特殊教育需要的學生一般都會在學習、溝通或社交方面遇到困難,因而需要接受不同程度的支援。

香港政府採用「雙軌制」推行特殊教育,現行的政策是根據專家的評估和建議,在家長的同意下,安排有較嚴重或多重殘疾的學童入讀特殊學校,以便接受加強支援服務,現時在香港有50間以上的特殊學校,針對不同特殊教育需要的學生。而其他有特殊教育需要的學生則可入讀普通學校進行「融合教育」,令學童能在主流學校接受教育 (香港特別行政區政府教育局, 2014)。「融合教育」早於1994年6月由聯合國教育科學及文化組織在西班牙塞拉曼加舉行的特殊教育國際會議中提出,呼籲各個政府及社區建立融合的教育制度,致力發展特殊教育為整體教育計劃的重要部分。香港政府於1997年推行融合教育,教育局因應學生不同特殊教育需要程度給予校本津貼,讓校方為SEN學童提供校本支援,提升學生在學習、溝通或社交方面的能力 (香港特別行政區, 2019)。

Special Education Needs (SEN) refer to the group of students who require alternative support in education. Common SEN issues include: Autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning difficulties (e.g. developmental dyslexia, specific language impairments), visual impairment, hearing impairment, intellectual disability, physical disability, emotional and/or behavioral difficulties, mental disorders, and gifted education (香港特別行政區政府教育局, 2017). Students with special education needs often experience difficulties in learning, communication and social aspects. Thus, they need to be supported in these aspects according to their situations.

The Hong Kong government provides two paths for children who are assessed to have SEN. First, there are over 50 special schools that provide special learning and teaching environment for children with serious SEN. Second, children with less serious SEN can enter the mainstream schools and study together with other children (as known as inclusive education), while the Education Bureau (EDB) supports schools to provide additional services for the SEN students (香港特別行政區政府教育局, 2014). The concept of “Inclusive education” was promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in June 1994, during the World Conference on Special Needs Education at Salamanca, Spain. UNESCO encouraged the world to build an inclusive education environment, and make the development of special education as center of their education plan. In 1997, the Hong Kone government started to promote inclusive education, in which EDB provides financial support and resources to schools based on the level of SEN of the students; thus the schools would provide suitable service and follow-up on students with SEN in aspects of learning, communication, social skills (香港特別行政區, 2019).

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