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页面建立日期
2019.04.24

页面更新日期
2019.10.02

https://doi.org/10.30942/2.20190424.002

香港人 Hongkongers


简介 Introduction

中国满清政府在1842年将香港岛割让给大英帝国成为殖民地,直到1997年,英国将香港主权移交中华人民共和国。在这百多年殖民地历史中,人群从中国大陆及其他地区移居香港,因此“香港人”并不直接指涉特定族裔或国籍。然而,回归后,华裔居民逐渐占大多数,根据香港2016年的人口普查,92% 人口是华裔,其中31% 出生于中国大陆、台湾或澳门。在5万非华裔人口中,最大的族群是菲律宾人、印尼人和白人,分别占非华裔人口的31.5、26.2% 和10.0%,其他亚洲族群包括印度人、巴基斯坦人和尼泊尔人 (HKSAR, 2017)。

“香港人”一词 在中文语境中使用多年,但英语专有名词 “Hongkonger”则是在2014年才被《牛津英语词典》正式收录 (South China Morning Post, 2014)。“香港人”本身并不是法定用语,在政府文件中,通常被称作“香港居民”。香港居民包括不同类型,例如:i) 非永久香港居民是指持有香港身份证但没居留权的人士,ii) 香港永久居民是持有香港永久居民身份证及居留权的人士,iii) 大部份港人持有中国护照及香港永久居民身份证,iv) 也有部份港人持有香港永久居民身份证但并非持有中国护照 (HKSAR, 2019) 。

自1997年回归20多年后,香港人的国族身份认同仍然是个未解决的问题。一项在2017年发布的调查显示,香港居民对“香港人”这身份的认同感最强,其次是其他国族文化身份,例如亚洲人、世界公民、中华民族、中国人等等。在所有身份选项中,香港居民对“中华人民共和国公民”的认同感最弱,这在18-29 年龄组中尤为明显 (HKUPOP, 2017)。

有学者指出“中国公⺠”⼀直是个复杂多变的概念。沈旭辉 (2007) 认为中国⺠族主义是复杂⽽多元,⽽且往往是由下⽽上得到⼤陆公⺠⽀持。Zhao (2006) 指出⾃清朝以来,及⾄今天的中华⼈⺠共和国宪法,“中国⼈”这概念在官⽅定义中⼀直指涉多⺠族 (多元⼀体)。

Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island in 1842, and its sovereignty was handed over from Britain to People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1997. For more than a hundred years in this British colony, people from mainland China and other parts of the world resided in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong people do not comprise of one particular ethnicity or nationality. After the 1997 handover, the proportion of ethnic Chinese has obviously increased, according to Hong Kong's 2016 census, 92% of its population is ethnically Chinese, with 31% were born in Mainland China, Taiwan or Macau. Among the 0.58 million non-Chinese, the largest ethnic groups in Hong Kong were Filipinos, Indonesians and Whites, constituting 31.5%, 26.2% and 10.0% of the non-Chinese population respectively, other south Asians include Indian, Pakistani, and Nepalese (HKSAR, 2017).

The Chinese term “xianggangren” has been used for years in Chinese contexts, but the English term “Hongkonger” has just recently been officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2014 (South China Morning Post, 2014). The term “Hongkonger” itself has no legal definition by the Hong Kong Government. More precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident and Hong Kong Resident are used in legal contexts, in which there are different types of Hong Kong residency, such as: i) non-permanent Hong Kong residents who are people holding Hong Kong Identity Cards but they have no right of abode, ii) permanent Hong Kong residents are those holding Hong Kong Permanent Identity Cards and having the right of abode, iii) most residents hold permanent Hong Kong Residents Identity Cards and Chinese passports, iv) but there are also permanent Hong Kong residents who do hold Chinese passport (HKSAR, 2019).

More than two decades after the 1997 handover, the subjective ethno-national identity of Hongkongers is still an unsettled issue. A 2017 survey showed that citizens continue to feel the strongest when identified as “Hongkongers”, then followed by a number of ethno-cultural identities, such as Asian, global citizens, Chinese, etc. The feeling of being “citizens of the PRC” is the weakest among all identity options, and this was particularly obvious in the 18-29 age group (HKUPOP, 2017).

Some scholars see that “Chinese” has always been a complex concept. Shen (2007) sees that Chinese nationalism is complicated and diverse, and it is often bottom-up, supported by mainland citizens. Zhao (2006) sees that the term Chinese has denoted multi-ethnicities and multi-nationalities since the Qing dynasty (diversity in unity, “duoyuanyiti).

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