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页面建立日期
2018.10.08

页面更新日期
2018.12.20

https://doi.org/10.30942/2.20181008.002
关键词﹕
#银髮人生

认知老化 Cognitive Aging


简介 Introduction

认知老化是指个体的认知能力随著年龄增长逐渐衰退的现象和过程。值得注意的是,并非所有认知能力都随著年龄而下降。心理学研究人员通常将认知能力 (有时也称为智力)大致分为两类:流体智力和晶体智力。流体智力指的是存储和操纵新信息的能力 (例如,感知能力,注意力,处理信息的速度,记忆能力,不依赖于先前学习和经验的流体推理能力)。这些能力通常于个体先前的学习和经验无关。相反,晶体智力指的是提取及使用先前学习和经验所获取信息的能力 (例如,专业知识,生活经验,智慧,语言能力,依赖于先前学习和经验的推理能力)。虽然流体智力类别中的认知能力通常受老化影响,但晶体智力类别中的认知能力通常随著年龄的增长而保持相对稳定 (Craik & Bialystok, 2006)。认知老化可以根据程度或严重程度的差别分为正常衰老,轻度认知障碍和认知障碍症 (例如,阿尔茨海默氏病)。正常老化指那些不会明显干扰个人日常生活的认知衰退。认知障碍症是一个通用术语,包括一系列会明显降低个体日常活动能力的严重认知衰退。轻度认知障碍介于正常老化和认知障碍症之间 —— 它对个体的日常活动存在一定干扰,但还未达到认知障碍症的诊断标准。目前普遍的观点是认知衰老无法逆转或治愈,但可通过干预或治疗延迟或缓解 (Ames et al., 2017; Buffington et al., 2013; Burns & Iliffe, 2009)。
Cognitive aging refers to the phenomenon and process in which individuals’ cognitive abilities, in general, decline as they get older. Worthy of note, not all cognitive abilities decline with age. Cognitive abilities (also known as intelligence) are often roughly classified into two categories in psychological research: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to process, store, and manipulate new information that is independent of individuals’ prior learning and experience (e.g., sensory ability, attention, the speed of processing, memory ability, fluid reasoning ability, and other abilities which do not depend on prior learning and experience). Crystallized intelligence, in contrast, refers to the ability to retrieve and use information that has been acquired through prior learning and experience (e.g., expertise, life experience, wisdom, language ability, and other abilities which depend on prior learning and experience). Whilst cognitive abilities in the fluid-intelligence category typically are subjected to age-associated decline, those in the crystallized-intelligence category are often shown to preserve or even improve with age (Craik & Bialystok, 2006). The age-associated cognitive decline could vary in the degree or severity, according to which cognitive decline can be categorized as normal aging, mild cognitive decline, and dementia (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). Normal aging refers to age-related changes that do not evidently interfere with individuals’ daily life. Dementia is a general term that describes a group of symptoms associated with severe cognitive declines that reduce one’s ability to perform daily activities. Mild cognitive impairment is the borderland between normal aging and dementia—it somewhat interferes with one’s daily activities but does not meet the diagnostic criteria of dementia yet. Cognitive aging is thought to be irreversible or incurable but may be delayed or alleviated via intervention or treatment (Ames et al., 2017; Buffington et al., 2013; Burns & Iliffe, 2009).

作者/Author: Xianmin Gong & Natalie Wong

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